The Chestnut Munia's nest is a ball made out of dried grass, close to the
ground in long grass or low bushes.
Black-headed Munia, Tri-coloured Nun,
Pipit Rawa (Malay)
Chestnut Munias are not as common as the other Munias.
They specialise in eating grass seeds and have large conical beaks
adapted for this purpose. They feed low among tall grass or on the
ground. In Singapore, they are mostly seen in rural areas with tall
grass. They are also found in cultivated lands, grasslands, scrub,
Gregarious and foraging in flocks, Chestnut Munias are constantly
on the move and somewhat nomadic, although they don't migrate. They
fly close together in groups, in an undulating flight.
and wetland wildlife at
Sungei Buloh Nature Park
features: Small (11cm) with big head; large conical
bills bluish grey; plumage chestnut; black head, throat,
upper breast, centre of belly, undertail coverts.
Genders look alike.
Juvenile: Uniformly buffy
brown plumage, no black head.
Call: Described as a loud
heh; shrill preep.
In flight: Flight is whirring
Status in Singapore: Common
resident throughout the island and North and South offshore
World distribution: India
to the Philippines and Sulawesi. Introduced in some countries.
Classification: Family Passeridae.
World 386 species, Singapore 16 species.
- Morten Strange,
"A Photographic Guide to Birds of Malaysia and Singapore: including
Southeast Asia, the Philippines and Borneo", Periplus, 2000
(p. 372: description, voice, habits, distribution, status, photo).
- Lim Kim Seng,
"Pocket Checklist of the Birds of the Republic of Singapore",
Nature Society (Singapore), 1999 (Abundance, status, Chinese and Malay
- Lim Kim Seng and
Dana Gardner, "Birds: An Illustrated Field Guide to the Birds
of Singapore", Sun Tree Publishing Ltd., 1997 (p. 121: identification,
status in Singapore, distribution, diagram, number of species).
- G W H Davison
and Chew Yen Fook, "A Photographic Guide to Birds of Peninsular
Malaysia and Singapore", New Holland Publishers Ltd., 1995
(p. 129: identification, status in Singapore, distribution, photo).
- Morten Strange
and Allen Jeyarajasingam, "Birds: A Photographic Guide to the
Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore", Sun Tree Publishing,
1993 (p. 94: description, distribution, habits, habitat, photo).
- Clive Briffett,
"A Guide to the Common Birds of Singapore", BP Science
Centre,1992 (p. 139: habit, habitat).
- Christopher Hails,
"Birds of Singapore" illustrated by Frank Jarvis, Times
Editions, 1987 reprinted 1995 (p. 157: habits, description, status in
Singapore, and lovely drawings of the birds).
- G C Madoc, "An
Introduction to Malayan Birds", Malayan Nature Society, 1947
(p. 217: description, habits, habitat).